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3 Things to Know about Festive TV Viewing this Christmas

The holiday season always promises an abundance of iconic and festive content to enjoy. With people breaking from work and having more spare time on their hands, that means more eyeballs than ever on the TV screen – and with that comes big commercial opportunities for brands and retailers.

This time of year gives consumers the chance to binge watch the box sets and tune into the movies they usually don’t have the time for. In fact, 55% of those who will be watching TV over the holidays say they’ll be watching more than normal – and that’s a story that holds true across the age groups.

Less than 10% see the holidays as a time to break away from their TV screens.

As the reach of online TV and subscription services increases with multi-device behaviors, understanding the dynamics of TV becomes even more important. So how and what will consumers be watching as they head into 2019?

As part of a bespoke study, we asked 2,700 internet users in the UK and U.S. about their viewing habits this festive season. Here’s what we found out.

1. More people watch TV on Christmas Day than Boxing Day.

As they wind-down and get into the festive spirit, it’s in the run-up to the 25th that TV viewers watch the most TV. Christmas Eve is set to be important too, with 43% of TV viewers saying this is when they tend to watch a significant amount of TV.

Perhaps most revealing are the figures for Christmas Day. While some assume consumers turn away from their TV sets in favor of family time on this day, almost half (48%) in the UK and U.S. say it’s when they watch some of the most TV over the festive period – almost twice as many as those doing so on Boxing Day.

This could be down to the family traditions built around Christmas Day – for example, families may watch a Christmas movie together in the evening, or in the UK, it’s often tradition to tune into the Queen’s speech mid-afternoon.

2. The holidays are a time for watching sports.

Festive movies like The Grinch and Home Alone, as well as Christmas TV specials, are naturally at the top of the Christmas TV preferences, but it’s not just festive content that will be getting the attention over the holidays.

As many as 40% say they’ll be watching sports around this time too.

In the UK and U.S., sporting leagues like the Premier League, NBA and NFL all broadcast games across Christmas and New Year. The Premier League, for instance, will broadcast four games over the two-week period – and Boxing Day is always a key date in the diary for football fans. Meanwhile, the NBA and NFL are the only two franchises with a live sport broadcast on Christmas Day – and the anticipation for this is often unmatched.

Sports viewing is one form of content that retains its appointment-viewing status, and during the holidays especially, there’s bound to be an appeal in watching the games live on a big TV screen with friends and family around. Along with this group viewing comes an even bigger audience and opportunity for brands and advertisers to leverage.

3. Online TV is set to rival broadcast TV.

Viewers this festive season won’t be limiting themselves to watching pre-scheduled broadcast or cable content.

UK and U.S. viewers are more likely to be watching subscription services like Netflix (64%) than they are live broadcast TV (55%).

The growing love of ‘binge watching’ TV series, combined with the extra time consumers have to do so, are giving services like Netflix the boost. Online TV services like these offer consumers the on-demand choice and flexibility that broadcast TV can’t mirror.

The ability to watch online TV services across a number of different devices is having an impact too. Among those who use these services, 43% are watching via a laptop, 35% are using a smartphone or tablet app, and 29% are using an Amazon Fire stick.

And with Christmas gifting expanding ownership of TV streaming sticks and smart TVs even further, these online TV services are likely to become an even more important part of consumers’ media portfolios next year.

That’s not to say there’s no place for broadcast TV in their schedules. In fact, most will be watching more TV than average, and combining online and offline forms of TV.

This means TV advertising is by no means redundant, as many will be planning their days around all the festive TV content that’s scheduled. Of course, this represents a big opportunity for advertisers – especially considering that 6 in 10 say that festive TV ads influence what they go out and buy.

This festive season promises to offer some of the biggest variety of content online and offline thanks to TV subscription services becoming more widespread. Consumers can choose to binge watch their way through Netflix original content, tune into the new drama being broadcast on cable, or watch their favorite seasonal specials on catch-up.

With that comes a big opportunity for brands and advertisers to target audiences with topical and relevant ads on more platforms than ever.

Will QR Codes Make a Comeback in 2019?

After the invention of barcodes in the mid 70s, there was an almost instant demand to encode more than the 20 characters held in traditional barcodes.

Based on user feedback, Denso Wave (owned by Toyota Group) put together a team of two to develop a 2D barcode that would be quicker and more flexible to scan.

Eventually, in 1994, they came up with a barcode that could hold up to 7,000 characters and could be scanned in any orientation up to 10 times faster than any other code at the time.

The QR code (Quick Response code) was born, and, being one of the first technologies that could easily connect the real and digital worlds, it was expected to be a major success for customers and marketers alike.

However, reality soon put a dampener on these high hopes.

The fall and resurrection of QR codes.

Requiring an additional application, accidentally opening to inactive websites, and codes not being scannable in poor lighting didn’t do much to boost the QR code’s standing. It was often easier to type in a URL than line up a smartphone camera to read the codes.

Today, inventions such as near-field communication (NFC) tags, most widely known as the secure and easy-to-configure technology behind contactless mobile payments, have moved into the areas QR codes historically attempted to fill.

In 2015, long after most had written off QR codes, Snapchat gave them a boost by launching QR-based Snapcodes, allowing users to easily follow their friends. Shortly after, Amazon, Google and Instagram all seemed to contract QR fever.

Last year, Apple’s iOS 11 incorporated a native QR code reader built into the camera app, and an expansion of the onboard NFC chip support allowed it to read NFC tags in the real world, as opposed to being limited to Apple Pay use.

Technologies often survive being pronounced dead. It can take a while to find its niche, but when it does, it’s suddenly useful and ubiquitous.

Over the past three years, we’ve seen significant increases in the number of consumers that scanned a QR code in the past month.

Twice as many respondents in Europe and North America scanned a QR code in the past month compared to Q3 of 2015.

The use of these codes is also gradually increasing in the Middle East and Africa, from a low of 12% in Q1 2017 to 18% in Q3 2018. While Europe may lead the way with contactless payments, the story in Africa is very different.

Payment solutions need to be different in Africa; the financial infrastructure is less developed and many of the financial ‘essentials’ present in Western markets are not available here.

Using Mastercard’s Masterpass QR – which will be making its social debut in Africa as part of a partnership with Facebook – customers can buy a solar energy system on credit and use their phone to make small daily payments for less than what they previously spent on hazardous kerosene lamps.

The future of QR codes and the role of NFC.

NFC has a steep hill to climb. Apple has decided to enable only reading of tags, and only on an app-by-app basis, meaning app developers will have to build support into their own software to make it work.

However, NFC could play an integral role in the ever-evolving state of brick-and-mortar retail stores.

It’s no secret that many old-time favorites, such as Toys R Us and Claire’s, are struggling to survive in the digital transformation of retail.

NFC has the potential to add an engaging, novelty element to the shopping experience. By directly tapping a product with an NFC tag embedded into the label or packaging, users can be greeted with anything from branded videos and exclusive coupons, to social media reviews of the product, or more information about the brand’s story.

Respondents who have used a brand’s QR code indicate a preference for innovation and novelty over usefulness. They’re 40% more likely than the average consumer to want the opportunity to contribute ideas for new products and designs, and over 2.5x more likely to have interacted with brands in such a way.

How should brands position themselves?

The respondents who have used a brand’s QR code in the past month have distinct preferences in other purchase areas, too.

They’re over twice as likely as the average internet user to discover brands via deals on group-buying websites like Groupon, and 2.5x as likely to say the presence of ‘buy’ buttons on social networks would make them more likely to complete a purchase.

Looking ahead to 2019.

Used in the right way, QR codes and NFC are exciting consumer engagement tools for the future.

In Japan, for example, banks and regional financial institutions expect to come out with a unified smartphone payment service, perhaps in April 2020.

This will allow savings account holders to pay merchants by showing QR Codes that appear on their smartphones.

WhatsApp is also testing a new feature that should make it easier to add people to your contact list using QR codes.

Soon, NFC will have to compete with augmented reality, meaning cameras will have better integrated AI that allows for greater recognition of images, scenes, products and people.

With cameras being less reliant on machine readability, and novelty being a weak foundation for tech adoption, it remains to be seen whether these technologies can bring the offline world into retail situations and become a mainstay for brands and consumers alike.

The Biggest Social Media Trends to Know in 2019

With 2018 swiftly wrapping up, all eyes are on the crucial trends for the year ahead. As always, social media is a topic on every brand’s mind – and for good reason.

The term “internet user” is synonymous with “social networker” in many markets, and the average internet user now has accounts across 8.5 different social media and messaging platforms.

While this omni-presence offers a wealth of opportunities for brands to engage their target audience, anyone looking to have an efficient strategy needs to keep up with changing social media behaviors.

Here are the latest trends we’ll be seeing more of in 2019.

Mobiles are now the primary social device.

Internet users are most likely to be accessing social media via their mobiles, with the device having seen a sharp increase in engagement over the past few years.

Although it’s still true that the majority of users access social platforms via computers at least some of the time, PC/laptops are declining as social devices.

What this means for brands: While PCs and laptops are still widely used, any social media strategy must now have a primary focus on mobile behaviors and experiences in order to meet consumer expectations.

Different age groups use social media for different reasons.

Social media is now equally as likely to be used for keeping up with the news as to stay in touch with friends.

But not everyone uses social media for the same reason.

If we hone in on 16-24s we can see they primarily use it to fill up spare time and find funny or entertaining content, meaning anyone looking to engage these users would do well to supply this sort of content on their channels of choice.

What this means for brands: It’s crucial to know not only what social media platforms are most popular, but why and for whom. When you know this, you can focus your efforts on the channels that really matter.

More than 4 in 10 use social networks to research new brands or products.

Social media is now the second-most prevalent channel for brand and product research, once again proving the importance of offering the right content for users.

For 16-24s, social media is now the most important research channel overall, having overtaken search engines towards the end of 2017.

And good word-of-mouth on social media goes a long way; a quarter of 16-24s and 25-34s say that seeing a brand/product has lots of likes would encourage them to buy something.

What this means for brands: Consumers are already using social media to conduct their research – make sure they find what they’re looking for. Have your brand story and products readily available, and ensure you’re pushing the right content, in the right place, at the right time.

1 in 4 follow brands they’re thinking of making a purchase from.

It’s great news for any retailer with a strong focus on social that 1 in 4 social media users follow brands while considering a purchase. It shows the potential for social commerce is still relevant, despite not having great uptake in Western markets.

At the moment, social media plays a big role in the purchase journey right up to the point of purchase, but the appetite to complete a final purchase within the platform remains low. Most users still move to retail sites when moving to the actual purchase.

What this means for brands: While social commerce has yet to take hold in the Western world, brands should remember that their social media presence is still a crucial part of the purchase journey. Great content on the right channels could be the final push for a consumer when trying to make the decision to buy.

While Facebook has the most users, YouTube has the most visitors.

It’s easy to assume that having the most members means having the highest engagement rates – but this isn’t the case.

While Facebook retains the highest membership volume with 85% of internet users outside China having an account, it falls behind YouTube in terms of weekly visitors.

YouTube has fewer registered members, but its visitor rates are 6% higher than its membership, making the video giant unique in this sense.

What this means for brands: Membership numbers don’t necessarily paint the true story. To know what platforms actually have the best engagement, and, crucially, where your target consumers spend their time, you must look deeper.

Video is an essential asset.

28% of users of the four major social platforms (not including China) engage with live streams on social media every month. Facebook has the highest engagement rates with live video.

But it doesn’t stop with live streams.

59% of internet users now consume video on social, and 27% create or share them.

What this means for brands: Video is no longer a nice-to-have – it’s a must. Any brand looking to make the most of their social media strategy should look to creating the kind of social video content their target audience will respond to, be it live or pre-made.

Social media success story: Iceland – ‘Rang-tan’

In April 2018, affordable food retailer Iceland became the first major UK supermarket to ban the use of palm oil in its own-brand products.

So it came as no surprise when the brand’s 2018 Christmas campaign continued its focus on spreading awareness and promoting reduced usage of palm oil.

The Insight

A survey of more than 5,000 UK consumers found about a third weren’t sure what palm oil was. But when they were told about the effects it has on the environment, 85% said they didn’t think it should be used in food products.

Palm oil production is thought to be responsible for around 8% of the world’s deforestation between 1990 and 2008, leading to disastrous results for the local wildlife – particularly orangutans.

An estimated 25 of the already endangered orangutan die every day as a result of this deforestation in Southeast Asia.

The Message

Iceland’s animated 2018 Christmas ad partnered with Greenpeace to raise awareness of this issue, focusing on baby orangutan Rang-tan and his story of losing his family and home in the rainforest as companies burn it down to produce palm oil.

Why it Worked

The emotionally-driven advert was controversially banned from being shown on TV, after Clearcast said it was in breach of the regulations around political advertising.

But instead of pulling the ad completely, Iceland saw an opportunity.

Knowing consumers are keen on environmentalism, the brand moved the campaign to social media. It chose to highlight the ban, encouraging people to watch it on YouTube and share it using the dedicated hashtag #NoPalmOilChristmas.

And with the likes of James Corden tweeting about the advert, it was a viral hit.

The ad has earned an accumulative 30m+ views so far, over 100,000 organic posts on Twitter, and over half a million shares on Facebook.

It’s proof of a brand that knows not only what its audience cares about, but how to adapt under difficult circumstances and use the right channels to ensure its message has impact.

Why We Grew Our Global Panel of Consumers to Over Half a Million

2018 was a year of change for everyone in the marketing and advertising arena.

The GDPR launched a much needed conversation around consumer privacy and data quality. More brands moved core skills like market research in-house. Across businesses, the insights function is gaining more momentum and authority as the focus shifts beyond behavioral data and analytics.

In line with these changes and the growing demand for fully opted-in, transparent data, we grew the annual interview base of our flagship survey by 90%. We now interview 550,000 internet users a year, with 100,000 of those respondents based in the U.S. – all of whom opt in and fully participate in the process.

This has helped us to solidify our stance as home of the world’s largest survey on the digital consumer.

On another level, it’s helping to change the way businesses leverage rich, robust consumer data. Here’s why.

Mass audiences are increasingly irrelevant.

It’s common knowledge that demographic data is no longer enough to effectively reach your audience. What’s changing is the way we think about the consumers we’re targeting.

Mass audiences of male, female, and age groups like 16-24s are increasingly irrelevant.

Instead, what brands need is a detailed understanding of micro-audiences that enable them to streamline their spend and drive more strategic marketing.

This is why we set about launching our new Hispanic dataset, which allows brands to fine-tune their targeting by looking closely at the dynamics of this vast group, dissected them into minute segments.

Deep survey data like this, that’s delivered at scale and in an agile timeframe, is the only sure way to understand the behaviors and motivations of today’s consumers.

Brands need globally consistent and comparable data.

When we ask our clients why they come to us, the need for globally consistent data (at both local and global level) always shines through.

This is especially true for our fast-growing client base of SMEs, who are more actively involved in marketing than they’ve ever been, but who need fast access to data of this kind in order to drive the best return.

Despite the wealth of data in existence today, it’s becoming ever more crucial for these brands and agencies to use a single source of data with a trusted and transparent methodology.

The fact that we’re expanding our reach so much means we can deliver this in a way that works for our clients – through a user-friendly, intuitive platform.

As Chris Daniele, VP and Director of Digital Analytics and Measurement Lead at BBDO puts it, “As insights professionals, our job is to put the science behind marketing, planning and strategy. GlobalWebIndex has the world’s strongest panel of online consumers and is our go-to and only source for global audience intelligence. We get a better pulse on the tried and true consumer of today. That’s the way the world is shifting and other vendors need to follow suit.”

We want to represent every internet user in the world.

Expanding the global reach of our research is always of vital importance. With Colombia, Denmark and Romania all being added to our data coverage map in 2018, we now collect insights from digital consumers across 45 countries, covering over 35,000 data points.

This provides marketers with a constantly growing source of insight that now represents over 2.5 billion internet users across 4,000 local regions.

We want to continue growing this in line with our goal of representing every connected consumer on the planet.

Looking to 2019.

The incredible growth we’ve seen in 2018 paints an exciting picture for the year ahead.

As we place more focus on growth, continuously expanding our reach across markets and developing insight that goes even deeper, we’re also looking to innovate in other ways.

This year saw the launch of our transformative new survey technology, Pollpass, enabling brands and agencies to generate bespoke data sets and insights within 24 hours. These engaging new surveys were created with the modern consumer in mind, with a chatbot-led interface that captures hard-to-reach, mobile-first audiences.

We’re making it our mission to transform market research as we know it by developing more solutions like this.

With new offices in Greece and LA, along with a whole host of new talent to help us achieve these goals, we’re very excited to see what 2019 will bring.

5 Global Consumer Trends Every Brand Should Know Ahead of 2019

Last month saw the release of the Global Media Intelligence Report, offering a detailed overview of digital behaviors and trends across 40 countries.

Put together by GlobalWebIndex, Starcom and eMarketer, the report is powered by our data and is jam-packed with essential media consumption, device and social media stats and analysis.

Here are five of the biggest talking points from the report.

1. Multi-networking is thriving.

The vast reach of social is a recurring theme in the report, and in many markets it’s now accurate to see the term “internet user” as synonymous with “social networker”.

But while we’ve all long known about the impressive reach of platforms like Facebook and YouTube, it’s easy to underestimate just how diverse the social landscape has become.

Globally, the average internet user now has accounts across eight different social media and messaging services. Each month, they’re actively engaging with about five of them.

We’ve talked before about the increasing specialization of social behaviors, with people using certain platforms for chat, others for photo-sharing, some for research, and so on; but what’s striking is the sheer number of social channels through which you can now engage your audience.

The global picture masks some particularly intense pockets of multi-networking, with some parts of Asia Pacific and LatAm having internet users maintaining accounts on more than 10 different platforms.

2. Social media beats search engines across some markets and demographics.

Ask people where they’re most likely to go to find out more information about a product or service and search engines are still hugely influential. But there are already a number of countries where the average internet user is more likely to head to a social media platform.

All of these are fast-growth markets, concentrated in the MENA (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt), LatAm (Mexico, Colombia, Brazil) and South-East Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines).

This makes sense if you think about the sheer reach of social media, but it becomes more dramatic if you focus solely on 16-24 year-olds. Ask this age group where they go for online product research and you see a pretty clean division between fast-growth markets (where social media wins) and mature markets across North America and Europe (where search engines still come first).

In fact, there’s not a single country in Asia Pacific, MEA or Latin America where 16-24s are more likely to favor search over social.

Even in Europe, 16-24s in Spain and Portugal have flipped to social too.

As social media continue to pervade more and more areas of our online lives, we can expect the remaining strongholds in Europe and North America to make the same transition. In a sense, social media platforms have become pseudo-search engines in themselves.

3. It’s all about mobile.

Mobile’s dominant role in terms of the connected devices we own and use has long been recognized. Ask people to select the most important device in their day-to-day life and mobile phones come in first place in 39 of the 40 countries featured in the Global Media Intelligence report.

It’s only in Germany where PCs and laptops still manage to top the table, but even there the margin is a very slim one.

Nevertheless, age and geographical trends are once again vital here. If you look at 45-64 year-olds, there are a number of North American, Australasian and Western European countries where PCs and laptops take top position.

The U.S. and 4 of the EU5 are in that group, underlining the influence that these devices continue to yield over older consumers who have fully adopted mobiles but who nevertheless first came online via the traditional, larger devices.

It’s also in Western Europe and North America where people are most likely to have the greatest number of devices; in Spain, the U.S. and UK, for instance, over a fifth of internet users have 6+ connected devices.

In part, that’s driven for the enduring fondness of tablets among older sections of the population within these regions. But just as we need to recognize internet users as being multi-networkers, we need to understand that they remain multi-device too, even if mobiles are the most powerful device within that mix.

4. Not all behaviors are mobile-first.

With certain behaviors, a particular device type will always have a strong pull. For consuming content, for example, you might think most people with a choice would opt for larger screens on devices such as laptops.

Similarly, the on-the-go nature of checking maps/directions will obviously favor mobiles (something our data confirms: in all 40 markets, internet users are most likely to do this on a phone).

The picture does however remain more divided for certain behaviors than you might expect. Social networking is one of them; the very nature of it would surely best lend itself to mobile, and yet there are 10 of the 40 countries where people are still more likely to do this on a PC or laptop.

That the countries are all in Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Switzerland), North America (Canada, USA) or Australasia (New Zealand) means the more balanced age profiles of internet populations are a strong influencer over this.

It’s the same for online banking, with Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland) and North America (Canada) being the only regions where there are still countries more likely to favor a PC/laptop over a mobile.

It’s a reminder to look beyond the global story of mobile dominance to understand the local trends in each market.

5. Online TV continues to soar.

Estimated time spent watching online TV and streaming continues to trend upwards each year, with the global figure now standing at just over an hour a day. Meanwhile, daily time spent watching traditional / broadcast / linear TV remains on a very gentle decline – sitting at 1 hour 54 minutes (versus 2 hours 15 minutes in 2012).

So, traditional TV viewing is hardly in freefall, and continues to occupy a hugely significant portion of our daily media consumption (capturing about twice as much time as online TV).

Even so, there’s one county among the 40 where online TV now grabs more time than traditional TV – China. The gap is a very small one, but it’s a significant milestone nonetheless.

Equally telling is that online TV scores particularly strong figures across the whole of the Americas region. The fact that this region has especially rich libraries on content available to viewers on services such as Netflix is a major factor behind this, and is a sign for what we’ll see elsewhere as other countries gain better and better OTT services. In short, build the content and they will come.

How Brands Can Engage Video Creators on Social Media

The pivot to video has been a huge trend in media, advertising and publishing landscapes over the past few years. It’s been driven by a perception that video – especially mobile video in short-form – is the heartland of digital content.

The entertainment-first social media landscape.

It’s long been our opinion that this is part of a greater tilt toward an entertainment-first social media landscape. Social media motivations like wanting to network, keep up with friends, and other measures of sociability are flatlining as videos, sports, and gaming gain significance.

Messaging apps are making social media less social.

Our latest wave of research conducted on 113,000 internet users reveals that 59% have watched some form of video content on either Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or Snapchat. This share is up from approximately 45% two years ago.

Who are social video creators?

A large share of consumers, however, are straddling these two trends – the pivot to video, and ‘desocialization’ of social media — the so-called social video creators.

These aren’t paid influencers — the 27% categorized as social video creators are people who upload and share videos, use their apps’ live functions, and so on. They’re not just liking and retweeting, but publishing video content that they create themselves.

We can see some definite patterns that set these consumers apart from others who for whatever reason choose not to share videos. For one, it’s attitudes that come through – especially opinions that reflect a degree of expressiveness.

They use social media to share their opinions, details about their day-to-day lives, and support causes at much higher rates than other internet users.

They’re also 15% more likely to be in the top 10% income group and 15% more likely to have postgraduate degrees. We find that interest in topics like urban and modern art, entrepreneurship and business is much higher than the global internet users in general.

They’re also around 40% more likely to say they’re interested in keeping up with fashion or tech trends – which is one of the reasons brands should be aware of them.

Their other main demographic differentiator is geographic — as we see across a range of metrics, internet users in the Asia-Pacific region and Latin America are a lot more inclined to use social media and adopt new technologies.

Niche social platforms have an edge.

Interestingly, even though we identified social video creators based on actions they’d taken on the major social media platforms, it’s actually the smaller, more purpose-built platforms that are doing better among this audience. Bearing in mind that this covers any active contribution, we can pick out some key themes.

Professional platforms (Viadeo, Yammer, Slack) are big, reflecting the combination of higher socioeconomic status and youth in the audience.

Naturally, we have visual-first sites: Imgur and Tumblr, which have seen much less content professionalization than many of their larger competitors. Reddit fits in here well as a particularly user-generated social platform.

By sheer volume, classic social media platforms like Snapchat, Facebook and Twitter attract the highest share of contributors, but they’re underperforming relative to the smaller platforms. YouTube (not listed), which 42% engaged actively with in some way (e.g. by posting a comment or liking, not necessarily uploading a video), is barely more popular than with internet users at large.

Six ways brands can engage.

People who share video content are both more open to marketing, more keen on new tech and products, and more likely to tell friends and family about products.

They’re an audience that brands will want to engage at the point where influencer collaboration bleeds into digital word-of-mouth and virality.

20% of social video creators said they’d shared a post from a brand on a social network within the past month – almost twice (1.8x) the average rate.

20% have also uploaded videos or pictures to a brand’s social page.

Thanks to their comfort and openness with brands, these consumers show a better response to competitions, direct outreach from vloggers, celebrity campaigns, and similar direct calls-to-action than others might.

This alone makes them an interesting audience, well-worth the extra attention.